Saints of July 16: Our Lady of Carmen
Carmel is a mountain of Israel, starting from the region of Samaria, ends up sinking into the Mediterranean Sea, near the port of Haifa.
This height has a peculiar charm. It is different from Mount Nebo in Jordan, the massif of Sinai and the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.
All the mountains have their memories theophanic Palestinian (ie manifestation of God), the peaks become sacred and mystical. But not so suggestive as Mount Carmel. Why San Juan de la Cruz took it as the symbol of the mystical ascent? Surely it was suggested the name of his own Carmelite Order. But surely there was some deeper intent that made her sympathetic to the mystery of the sacred mountain of the prophet Elijah.
A pious tradition holds that, since the days of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, in that area were men of prayer who lived in solitude in search of God. In the period of the Crusades arose among Christians the desire to live on that mountain of life dedicated to Christ. Thus arose in Carmel Carmelite life. The convent of Mount Carmel has an evocative name: “Stella Maris” (Star of the Sea). It’s a beautiful building to 500 square meters above the sea level Mediterrano in the city of Haifa.
The center of the convent is occupied by the sanctuary of the Virgen del Carmen. In the high altar of this beautiful church on a Greek cross is venerated statue of the Virgen del Carmen, by an Italian sculptor in 1836.
Under the altar is the cave of Elijah. According to tradition, this was the place where the Prophet refuge. A statue reminds the zealous defender of the religion of Yahweh.
Carmelite Fathers tell us that it was not easy to remain Catholic on this mountain. It is true that, at the time of the Crusades, the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, Saint Albert, could give the hermits of Mount Carmel, a religious rule 1212. It is said that the Carmelite St. Simon Stock happened around here before his famous vision of Carmelite scapular.
Also went on pilgrimage to this holy mountain King St. Louis of France in 1254 in thanksgiving for being saved from a shipwreck.
With the fall of the city of Acre in 1291 came the Arab persecution led to the martyrdom of not a few religious. After a long interruption of monastic life in the mountains that gave rise to the expansion of the Carmelite ideal for the West, religious del Carmen returned to Mount Carmel by the seventeenth century.
The Star of the Sea
The sailors before the age of electronics trusted their way to the stars. Hence the analogy with the Virgin Mary who as star of the sea, guides us through the tricky waters of life towards the safe haven that is Christ.
For the invasion of the Saracens, the Carmelites were forced to leave Mount Carmel. An ancient tradition tells us that before leaving the Virgin appeared to them as they sang the Salve Regina and she promised to be for them the Star of the Sea that beautiful name also known as Our Lady Mount Carmel rises like a star next to sea
The Carmelites and the Virgin of Carmen
spread in Europe
The Immaculate Virgin, Star of the Sea, is the Virgen del Carmen, is that since ancient times venerated there. She joined the Carmelite order as the spread around the world. The Carmelites are known for their devotion to the Mother of God, and that she sees the fulfillment of the ideal of Elijah. They even call them “Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.” In his religious profession devoted to God and Mary, and took the habit in her honor, as a reminder that their lives belonged to her and for her to Christ.
The Brown Scapular
Signs of human life and Christian
We live in a world with lots of facts taken as a symbol: the ray of light, a flame of fire, water that flows … In daily life there are also gestures that express and symbolize deeper values: as the sharing of food (a sign of friendship), the line up for a demonstration (a sign of solidarity), being all up (respect).
As men we need signs or symbols to help us understand and live.
As Christians we have Jesus, the great gift and also a sign of eternal love of the Father. He founded the Church, itself a sign and instrument of his love. I even used bread, wine, water to go back to higher realities that we see or touch: able to give them to us was truly signs, ie the Sacraments.
In celebration of the sacraments symbols (water, oil, bread, laying on of hands, rings) express and operate a communication with God that is present through such practical daily life.
In addition to the liturgical signs, there are other signs in the church, linked to an event, a tradition, a person.
ONE OF THESE IS Brown Scapular.
Origin of the Scapular
In the Middle Ages many Christians want to join then founded religious orders: Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians, Carmelites. An associated laity came to them through the Confraternities.
The religious orders tried to give lay people a sign of affiliation and participation in its spirit and apostolate. This sign was made up a significant part of the habit: coat, lace, scapular.
Among the Carmelites established the Scapular, in reduced form, as an expression of belonging to the Order and to share his devotion to Mary.
Currently the Scapular of Our Lady of Carmen is a sign approved by the Church and proposed by the Carmelite Order as an expression of Mary’s love for us and as an expression of filial confidence by us in her, whose life we follow.
The “Scapular” was originally an apron that monks wore the religious habit for manual labor. Eventually became the symbolic meaning of wanting to carry the cross daily, comlos true followers of Jesus. In some religious orders, like Carmel became the sign of the decision to live life as servants of Christ and Mary.
The Scapular symbolized the special bond of Carmelites to Mary, Mother of God, expressing confidence in her maternal protection and the desire to follow his example of giving to Christ and others. This has become a quintessential sign Mariano.
The Scapular, a sign Marian
The Scapular is rooted in the long history of the Carmelite order, which represents the commitment to follow Christ as Mary, the perfect model of all disciples of Christ. This commitment is rooted in baptism logic that transforms us into children of God.
Our Lady teaches us
A live open to God and His will, manifested in the events of life;
To listen to the voice (word) of God in the Bible and in life, after putting into practice the requirements of this voice;
A feeling faithfully pray God present in all events;
To live close to our brothers and to show solidarity with them in their needs.
The Scapular introduced into the fraternity of Carmel, is a large community of monks and nuns who, born in the Holy Land, are present in the Church for more than eight centuries.
Committed to live the ideal of this religious family, which is friendship with God through prayer
It puts forward the example models saints of Carmel with whom a relationship is established family of brothers and sisters.
Expressed faith in the encounter with God in eternal life through the intercession of Mary and her protection.
In summary and in particular the Brown Scapular
Nor an object for magical protection (an amulet)
Not an automatic guarantee of salvation
Neither a waiver not to live the demands of Christian life upside down!
A sign “strong” approved by the Church for centuries, as it represents our commitment to follow Jesus like Mary:
* Open to God and his will
* Guided by faith, hope and love
* Nearby neighbors in need
* Praying constantly and discovering God present in all circumstances
* Sign introduces a family of Carmel
* A sign that nurtures the hope of encountering God in eternal life under the protection of Mary.
* The Scapular is imposed once for all, a Carmelite priest or other authorized.
* Can be substituted for a medal representing on the one hand the image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and another of the Virgin. This medal is blessed when it changes.
* The Scapular is true for Christians who live according to the Gospel requires, receive the sacraments and profess a special devotion to the Blessed Virgin (expressed in the daily recitation of at least three Hail Marys).
Laying of the scapular: formula
Receive this Scapular, a sign of a special relationship with Mary, Mother of Jesus, you agree to imitates.
This Scapular you remember your dignity as a Christian, your commitment to serving others and imitating Mary.
Take it as a sign of his protection and as a sign of your belonging to the family of Carmel. Be willing to do the will of God and commit to work for the construction of a world that responds to the plan of brotherhood, justice and peace of Christ.
St. Teresa of Jesus and the Virgin Mary
All Santa Teresa Marian experience that is scattered in his writings, can be composed in a mosaic that provides a beautiful picture of Mary, we use three major lines of Teresian doctrine.
a. Marian devotion and Marian mystical experience
From the first page of the Teresian writings, the Virgin among the most important memories of childhood Teresa is the memory of the devotion of her mother and that he instilled in the recitation of the Rosary (1,1.6) it is poignant episode of his prayer to the Virgin when she loses her mother Beatriz, at the age of 13 years, “affliction I went to an image of Our Lady and begged my mother to tears. It seemed that even did this in simplicity has earned me For I have found favor with this sovereign Virgin in everything I have asked her, and, finally, she has drawn me to herself “(1.7). The Teresa then attributes to the Virgin, the grace of constant protection and especially the grace of his conversion: “I have turned to each other.” Other texts of autobiography reveal the permanence of this Marian devotion: when you go to the Virgin in her sufferings (19, S), he remembers his Feast of the Assumption and the Immaculate Conception (ib. 5.9, 5, 6), or the Holy Family (ib. 6.8), or his devotion to the Rosary (ib. 29.7, 38.1).
Very soon the devotion to the Virgin becomes, as in other aspects of life of the Holy, an experience of its mysteries when God made Teresa enter into contact with the mystery of Christ and all that belongs to him. In the experience
Teresian mysticism of the mystery of the Virgin there is a progressive contemplation and experience of the most important moments of life of the Virgin, according to the Gospels. For example, we have an intuition of the mystery of the overshadowing of the Virgin and her humble attitude and wise at the Annunciation (Concepts of Love of God 5.2, 6.7). Twice the Holy Mother has had a mystical experience of the first words of the Canticle of Mary, the “Magnificat” (ratio 29.1, 61), which according to the testimony of María de San José frequently “softly repeated and Castilian “(cf. BMC 18, p. 491).
Contemplate with wonder the mystery of the Incarnation and the Lord’s presence within us the image of the Virgin which carries within it the Savior: “Did (the Lord) fit into the belly of his Most Holy Mother. As Lord, with brings freedom, and how we measure our loves to make himself “(The Way Escorial 48.11). Contemplates the presentation of Jesus in the temple and finds the meaning of the words of Simeon to the Virgin (35.1): “I think when you see my mother holding me in her arms, she enjoyed this content without severe torment. Since Simeon said those words, my Father gave him to see clear light for what I had to suffer “(cf. also the birth of Jesus Poetry on the display 14 and Road 31.2). Has the flight into Egypt and the hidden life of the Holy Family (Dona Luisa de la Cerda, 27 May 1563, and Life 6.8).
It has a special insight into the presence of Mary in the paschal mystery of his Son, involved with her in the time of his desolation and joy of the Resurrection of the Lord. Teresa loved to see strength of Mary and her communion with the mystery of Christ at the foot of the Cross (26.8). In Concepts of Love of God (3.11) describes the attitude of the Virgin: “I was up and not sleeping, but her most holy soul suffering and dying a cruel death.” Entered mystically into the sorrow of the Virgin when you put the Lord in his arms “a way as portrayed in the fifth sorrow” (58), has experienced at Easter 1571 in Salamanca surpassing desolation and soul (which is like a dark night of spirit), all of which made her remember the loneliness of the Virgin at the foot of the Cross (List 15, 1.6). On this occasion the Lord says: “In resurrection I went to our Lady who was already in great need … and had been much with her, because she had been need of consolation” (ibid.).
On several occasions been able to contemplate the mystery of the glorification of the Virgin on the feast of her Assumption (33.15 and 39.26 Life). Is aware that the Virgin accompanied by her constant intercession the community in prayer, as happened at St Joseph’s in Avila (36.24) and Encarnación (25.13 Value).
When a high mystical experience gives the mystery of the Trinity perceived closeness of the Virgin in the mystery and the fact that the Virgin, Christ and the Holy Spirit are an ineffable gift of the Father: “I gave you My Son and the Holy Spirit and the Virgin. What can you give me? (ibid.)
It can be said that Santa has had a profound mystical experience Marian has enjoyed the presence of Mary and herself, the Mother, has revived its mysteries. So it is a deep conviction of the Teresian doctrine that the mysteries of the humanity of Christ and the mysteries of the Virgin Mother are part of the mystical experience of the perfect (cf. Mansions VI, 7.13 and title of chap., 8 , 6).
b. Mary, model and mother of the spiritual life.
Santa Teresa has been expressed in some doctrinal lines experience and contemplation of the mystery of the Virgin Mary. It would, undoubtedly drawn a beautiful synthesis of Marian spirituality if, as was his intention, had said the “Hail Mary” as he did with the Lord’s Prayer in the first draft of the Way of Perfection.
We can affirm that among the characteristic virtues of the Virgin to Saint Teresa proposed for imitation, there is one that contains all. Mary is the first Christian, the disciple of the Lord, the follower of Christ to the foot of the Cross (26.8). It is the model of total adherence to the humanity of Christ and communion with him in his mysteries, so that she is the contemplation of a model centered on the sacred humanity (cf. 22.1 Life, Mansions VI, 7.14 .)
Among the virtues which are also the Carmelite religious life we can cite: the poverty that made Mary poor with Christ (cf. The Way 31.2): the humility brought God of heaven “in the womb of the Virgin” (The Way 16.2) and is therefore one of the main virtues to be imitated: “Let us in some way the great humility of the Blessed Virgin” (Road 13.3), the attitude of humble contemplation and amazement at the wonders of God (Love of God concepts, 6.7) and total assent to his will (ib.).
His presence is with all of our spiritual life path, as if every grace and every crucial moment of maturity in the Christian and religious life had to do with the active presence of the Mother in the way of his daughters. Thus the Virgin appears actively present throughout the description Teresa makes the journey of spiritual life in the Interior Castle. Is the Virgin who intercedes for sinners when she is entrusted (Dwellings I, 2.12). It is an example and model of all virtues, for their merits and virtues of breath can serve his memory at the time of the final conversion (Purple III 1.3). Is the Bride of Songs (Love of God concepts, 6.7), a model of perfect souls. And is the mother in which all graces are summarized in communion with Christ “much suffering”: “We have always seen that those who walked closest to Christ our Lord were the major works: we see what his glorious Mother and her glorious Apostles go through “(4.5). So the memory of Christ and the Virgin in the liturgical celebration of his mysteries, and strengthens with us (cf. VI Mansions, 7,11.13).
c. The Virgin Mary and Carmel
Teresa of Jesus with her Carmelite vocation, entered deeply into all the ancient spiritual tradition of Carmel. In the monastery of the Incarnation in Avila was able to soak up all the rich Marian spirituality of the Order, as in the sixteenth century expressed the historical tradition, the spiritual legends, Carmelite liturgy, popular devotion, the Carmelite iconography. In his writings the name of the Order is permanently attached to the Virgin that is Lady Patroness, Mother of the Order and each of its members. Everything is Marian in the Order, according to Santa Teresa: the habit, the Rule, the houses.
When she was appointed prioress of the Incarnation, in 1571, put in place first chorus to the Virgin Mary because he understands that there is a convergence of devotion, love and respect from all religious. The movement also has a delightful epilogue to the appearance of the Virgin (25). In a letter to Maria de Mendoza (March 7, 1572) said affectionately: “My ‘Prioress’ (Virgin Mary) is doing wonders.” Joyfully welcomes Fr Gracian, so devoted to the Virgin, as she frequently recalled in his Letters, and is excited about the knowledge he has and tells of the origins of the Order, as narrated in the books of that time (see Foundations, C.23) is fully aware of the privileges of the Scapular, as seems to allude in this sentence about the death of a Carmelite: “I understood that having been a friar who was faithful to his profession he had profited by the Bulls of the Order not to enter Purgatory (Life 38.31).
With the same devotion to Mary, as a service of renewal of the Order of Our Lady and pulse of the Virgin, set about the founding of San José. Already in the first thanks that Christ does, find an allusion to the presence of the Virgin in the Carmel (32.11).
Following is the Virgin herself to the foundation of San Jose with identical words and promises and a special grace granted to Theresa of inner purity, a sort of investiture for Founder Marian (Life 33.14). At the happy conclusion the founding of St. Joseph Mother Teresa Marian confesses his feelings: “It was for me like being in a glory to see the Blessed Sacrament … and made a work which I understood was to serve the Lord and honor of the habit of His glorious Mother “(Life 36.6). He adds, “keep the Rule of Our Lady of Carmel … please God all the glory and praise him, and the glorious Virgin Mary, whose habit we wear” (36, 26.28) In response to this Marian service go to Christ thank you “what he had done for His Mother” and go to the Virgin “in great glory, with white robe and under it seemed to enfold us all” (36, 24).
In the account of the progress of the Reformation, Teresa always took care to emphasize the continuity with the Order, the service done to our Lady, the special protection afforded by Mary at all times. For example, the encounter with the Father Rubeo and permission obtained to increase the Teresian monasteries: “I wrote to Father General a letter … by preceding the service would be to Our Lady, who was very devoted. She was be that it “(Foundations, 2.5). The whole book of Foundations seems to be written in a Marian key with continual allusions to the Virgin and his service, as when he writes, “began to be filled these dovecots of the Virgin Our Lady …” (Ib. 4.5), or when stressed: “It is these principles to renew the Rule of the Virgin Mother and Our Lady and Patroness” (ib. 14.5), says about the founding of Duruelo. When she looked back at the end of the book of Foundations, saw it all as a service of the Virgin and a work in which he has worked the same Queen of Carmel: “We rejoice to be able to render some service to our Mother and Lady and Patron … Little by little they are doing things the honor and glory of this glorious Virgin and her Son … ” (Ib. 29,23.28). The same separation of shoes and barefoot made in the Chapter of Alcala in 1581 is seen by Teresa as part of peacekeeping to the Mother of the Order: “Our Lord has done so important … to honor and glory of his glorious Mother, it is of the Order as Lady and Patron is our … ” (Ib. 29,31).
The memory of the Virgin Teresa suggested several times the meaning of the Carmelite vocation inspired by Mary. For example with an implicit reference to the Virgin writes: “All who wear this sacred habit of Carmel are called to prayer and contemplation (because this was our first, of this we are descendants of those holy fathers of Mount Carmel that in such great solitude and contempt of the world sought this treasure, this precious pearl that talking about “(V 1.2).
In the above context and the Saint speaks of the vocation prayer, hidden treasure and pearl of great price – both Gospel allusions – that are within us, but require the total gift of our life to buy the field where the treasure and acquire the precious pearl. Mary appears as the mother of this “race of contemplatives”, through her interior meditation and total surrender of the Lord. On another occasion Teresa calls attention to the need for the imitation of the Virgin to be called in truth her children: “May it please our Lord, sisters, that we may live as true daughters of the Virgin and to keep our profession, that our Lord will make us the mercy promised to us “(Foundations 16.7). In the love of the Virgin and adherence to the same family is Teresian fraternity for the foundation of mutual love and communion of goods, as suggested by these two texts: “So, my daughters, all are of the Virgin and sisters, seek much love each other “(Letter to the nuns of Seville, January 13, 1580, 6). “So we bring all of a habit, because we help each (monasteries) to others, because what is one is all” (Letter to Mother Prioress and Sisters of Valladolid, May 31, 1579.4).
These pages show how the Holy Mother has lived intensely the Marian tradition of Carmel and enriched it with his mystical experience, devotion and doctrinal orientation of his writings. Discalced Carmelite For the Virgin is in the Teresian perspective, a model of fidelity to Christ, to experience contemplative of its mystery and ecclesial service, for each monastery, the Virgin is the Mother whose presence increases the sense of intimacy and family, encouraged in the way of spiritual life, presides as fervent prayer intercessor before her Son.
Marian Spirituality of the Carmelite order
Written by the Order of Discalced Carmelites
1. On the origins of our devotion to Mary
There are three key words that summarize the origins of our charismatic relationship with the Virgin Mary: the place of Mount Carmel, Marian name or title of the Order, the explicit mention of the dedication of the Order of Carmel in the service of our Lady.
a. The place: a chapel in honor of the Virgin Mary at Mount Carmel
An anonymous pilgrim from the early thirteenth century offers us, in a paper on the roads and pilgrimages to the Holy Land, the first historical evidence about the Marian Order. It speaks of a “very beautiful little church of Our Lady Latin hermits, called” Brothers of Carmel “had in the Wadi ‘ain es-Siah. Another wording of this manuscript speaks of a church of our Lady.
Later the title of the Virgin Mary given to the whole monastery, was notably enlarged the original chapel, as recorded in various ancient documents (Bullarium Carmelitanum, I, p. 4 and 28). This information concerning the chapel of Mount Carmel dedicated to the Mother of God is significant and practically is the fact which shows the oldest Carmelite devotion to Mary. Since its founding principle of the Carmelites have built a small chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mother of God in their own land of Israel.
We assume that this chapel was led by an image of the Mother of God. The ancient tradition of the order has given us some old images of Eastern influence. Some are in the style of the Virgin of tenderness or the Virgin enthroned with her Son. This suggests that the hermits of Mount Carmel wanted to devote himself to live in allegiance to Jesus Christ under the loving gaze of the Virgin Mother, and she presides at birth the birth of a new ecclesial experience. Hence the fact that is recognized as its Patron, in the words of General Pedro de Millaud King Edward I of England about the Virgin Mary “in whose praise and glory this same Order was especially founded” (cf. ibid, 606 -607). A statement that the later tradition would confirm.
b. The name “Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel”
This is the title of the Order in some papal documents, with specific reference to the Virgin Mary, as witnessed by the Bull of Innocent IV, Ex parte dilectorum (13-1-1252): “On behalf of our beloved sons, the hermit brothers of the Order of St. Mary of Mount Carmel “(Analecta Ordinis Carmelitarum 2 (1911-1913) p.128). In a subsequent paper (20-2-1233) Urban IV (in the Bull Quoniam, ut ait) refers to the “Prior Provincial of the Order of the Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel in the Holy Land” and added that Mount Carmel is the place of origin of this Order which to build a new monastery in honor of God and “the said Glorious Virgin patroness” (Bullarium Carmelitanum I, p.28).
This name, “Brothers” is a sign of familiarity and intimacy with the Virgin, has been recognized by the Church, and will in future be a source of spirituality when later Carmelite authors speak of the “patronage of the Virgin” and its quality of ” sister “of the Carmelites.
c. The consecration to the Virgin
Carmel professes his total dedication to the service of Jesus Christ as Lord in the Holy Land, in the sense of monitoring and service that has the original text of the Rule in its historical and geographical context, his total consecration to the Virgin Mary. This is recognized by a former legislative text of the Chapter of Montpellier, held in 1287: “We implore the intercession of the glorious Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus, in whose gift and honor our religion was founded on Mount Carmel” (cf. Acts of the General Chapter Montpellier, Acta Cap.Gen., Ed Wessels-Zimmermann, Rome 1912, p.7). This special consecration binds to remember to follow Christ have a logical consequence in the formula of profession that include an explicit statement of commitment to God and the Blessed Virgin Mary.
2. A living spiritual tradition
After the historical data pertaining to the dawn of the Marian experience of Carmel, the Constitutions say the most significant elements of Marian spirituality of St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross. However, we can condense into a few guidelines doctrinal wealth of Marian spirit of the Order as it was lived from the beginning, enriched by the devotion and the spiritual writings of some outstanding Carmelites.
a. The titles of love and veneration.
We can say that the ancient Carmelite tradition has expressed the bonds of love with the Virgin through a series of titles relating to the mystery of Mary, but with a special flavor from the experience of Carmelite life. Thus, in the beginning, dominated the title of Patron of the Order, but also to make its way sweeter expression of Mother, as in ancient formulas of Chapters and Constitutions, how are you: “In honor of our Lord Jesus Christ and the glorious Virgin Mary, Mother of the Order of Carmel, “” To the praise of God and the Blessed Virgin Mary Mother of God and our Mother “, as the Constitutions of 1369.
The antiphon “Flos Carmeli” refers to her as “Sweet Mother” (Mater mitis) and Juan de Chimineto refers to Mary as “source of mercy and our Mother.” The two titles are related to the mystery of the Virgin Mother of God in the extension of her maternity to men. To these must be added the Sister, assumed by the Carmelites of the fourteenth century devotional literature that chronicles the origins of the Order, from the prophet Elijah prophetically contemplates the future puff Mother of the Messiah, and is pleased to illustrate the relationship between the Virgin and the hermits of Mount Carmel.
From another point of view of theory, the Carmelites, in contemplating the mystery of the Virgin, have highlighted his virginity, staring at her the model of choice for a virginal life in Carmel and its relation to contemplation. For the same reason the Carmelites have always been among the defenders of the privilege of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin in the controversies of the Middle Ages, is at the level of theology, whether in favor of the introduction of the party in the Calendar of the Order to be celebrated with special devotion. Hence also the authors’ insistence on filial contemplation Carmelites of Our Lady Immaculate and commitment to imitate the Virgin in this spiritual attitude, symbolized in the white coat of the habit of the Order.
b. Privileges for the Order.
The Marian history and spirituality of the Order, especially during the XIV-XVI, to be enriched devotionally, augmenting the early historical tradition. The Virgin Mary appears as the Protectress of the Order in difficult moments of its evolution and expansion in the West. The Catalogue of Carmelite Saints recognized the vision that the General Order, Simon Stock, had in 1251, when the Virgin appeared to him and he gave the habit of the Order assuring eternal salvation for all who wear it with devotion. Pope John XXII is given a document, commonly called Bull Sabatina, which is dated March 3, 1322, which relates the vision the Pope of the Virgin has promised personal protection in exchange for assistance he provided to the Carmelites, in the Bull referred to the privilege of a release from the pains of purgatory for those who have taken the Scapular worthily, by maternal action of the Virgin which will free his devotees Saturday following his death.
These two facts have polarized popular attention to the Marian devotion given by the Order and have monopolized, in a sense, the spiritual vision that the Order had the mystery of Mary, which is certainly much richer, more evangelical, more spiritual .
Order from the fourteenth century wanted to celebrate with a special festival, the Commemoration of the Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel, the benefits received through the intercession of Our Lady. This party had both the sense to remember the protection of Mary and to make Thanksgiving by the Order. The choice of date, as we know, influenced by the partial adoption of the Order obtained at the second Council of Lyons, July 17, 1274, when he had been in danger of extinction of the Order. Subsequently, the date of July 16 was considered the traditional day of the apparition of the Virgin to St. Simon Stock, in this way the memory of the protection of the Virgin was concentrated in thanksgiving for what constituted the sum and summary the love of the Virgin to the Carmelites, the gift of the Scapular and privileges.
c. Marian Spirituality of the Order: Mary, Model and Mother
A hallmark of the Carmelites attitudes toward the Virgin Mary is the desire to imitate her virtues in their religious profession. The well-known Carmelite theologian John Baconthorpe (1294-1348) had attempted in his commentary on the Rule parallels between the life of Carmelite life of the Virgin Mary is an exegetical principle of great importance because it centers devotion on imitation. Another great theologian, Bostio Arnold (1445-1499), has sung in his work on the Patronage of Mary over the Order, the sense of intimacy with the Virgin, the special filiation of Carmelite real communion with the Mother, the sense of “brotherhood” with her. Blessed Baptist of Mantua (1447-1516) is a distinguished singer of the Virgin in his poetry. Faithful interpreters of the Carmelite tradition and splendor carried the sense of intimacy with the Virgin and its conformation inside the mystery of Mary P. Miguel de San Agustin (1621-1684) and directed Mary of St. Teresa (1623-1677).
Although this is not the place to develop the doctrine of all these authors, we wanted to record a rich spiritual and doctrinal tradition of Carmel found on the representatives of the Teresian Carmel a worthy continuation and deepening of Marian spirituality.
d. Liturgy and popular piety.
The Carmelites have expressed their devotion and consecration to the Virgin especially through the liturgy. Temples have been erected in his memory and worshiped his image. The ancient rituals of the Order, from the thirteenth century, are the liturgical fervor of Carmel in the celebration of the Marian feasts of the Church, with the acceptance of new celebrations, it comes to parties in other places and other orders, are not greeted with much fervor, as the feast of the Immaculate Conception. The celebration of the Solemn Commemoration of Our Lady of Mount Carmel became the main party. The ancient Jerusalem rite, followed by the Order’s many invocations to Mary in the canonical hours with Marian antiphons at the end of each hour and a special solemn Salve Regina at Compline.
In honor of the Virgin votive Masses were celebrated and the name of Mary is frequently introduced into the liturgical texts of the taking of the habit and profession. You could say that the Carmelite liturgy has left a deep impression of Marian spirit in the spiritual tradition and has formed inside the professed dedication to the Order of Our Lady the Virgin. Along with the liturgy bloom features popular devotional practices of the Church, as the Angelus and the Rosary and others proper to the Order, together with the devotion of the Scapular.
3. Marian Spirituality in the Teresian Carmel
The second part of n. 54 of the Constitutions presents the logical continuation of the Marian experience of Carmel in Santa Teresa and San Juan de la Cruz with these words: “Santa Teresa and San Juan de la Cruz, confirmed and renewed Carmel’s devotion to Mary.” The following is a brief and compact synthesis of Marian thought of Santa Teresa and San Juan de la Cruz. Within the space offered by these sites is worth brief comment a little more elongate the vision offered by the Constitutions of this point to see how far the subject is enriched Marian Saints of the Order, as currently configured is our spirituality , from the doctrine and experience of Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross and other eminent witnesses of the Teresian Carmel.